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For Turkey, the transition from Republic to Empire was very difficult. The impact that the Ottoman Empire had in human consciousness was very strong and for many nostalgic people it is still considered the best way. „Imperialists” refused to see the turning points that led to decline of the empire and they could not explain why, after the First World War the country was in chaos. Against the background of this crisis is raising a nationalist movement headed by Mustafa Kemal, who ultimately manages to become winners. Switching to the Republic was not an easy process because until 1923 Turkey was forced to swing between imperialist and nationalist on the one hand, and on the other to face a period of war. Greece claimed an important part of Turkish territory, at first supported by the United Kingdom and Italy, and then only by Britain. France and the United States supported Turkish State, because its disappearance would create a strong Greece and an England in control of the waters of that area. An important factor was also the Soviet Union neighbouring Turkey, which by its size and strength created equilibrium for Turkey. After the Greek-Turkish conflict, the Turks managed to keep their territory with the immense sacrifices.